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25 نكته گرامری كه هر كسی باید بداند(بخش اول)

این لیست شامل 25 نكته گرامری البته در سطح مبتدی است كه به زبان آموزان كمك می كند كه بتوانند هم مرور گرامر داشته باشند و هم اینكه بتوانند برای شركت  در هر آزمونی خود را آماده كنند

 

1.When to Use Any or Some
2.In / On / To / At
3.Articles - The / A / An
4.Uses of 'Like'
5.Past Tense Irregular Verbs
6.Pronouns
7.Prepositions of Time - In / At / On
8.Verbs Followed by the Gerund or the Infinitive
9.Present Simple
10.Modal Form Basics
11.Future Forms - Going to / Will
12.Countries and Languages - Names and Adjectives

 

When to Use Any or Some

•Use "some" in positive sentences. We use some for both countable and uncountable nouns.
Example: I have some friends.

•Use "any" in negative sentences or questions. We use any for both countable and uncountable nouns.
Example: Do you have any cheese? - He doesn't have any friends in Chicago.

•Use "some" in questions when offering or requesting something that is there.
Example: Would you like some bread? (offer) - Could I have some water? (request)

•Use "any" in negative sentences or questions. We use any for both countable and uncountable nouns.
Example: Do you have any cheese? - He doesn't have any friends in Chicago.

•Use "some" words - somebody, someone, somewhere and something - in positive sentences.
Example: He lives somewhere near here.

•Use "any" words - anybody, anyone, anywhere and anything - in negative sentences or questions.
Example: Do you know anything about that boy? - She doesn't have anywhere to go.
 

In / On / To / At

IN

Use 'in' with spaces:
•in a room / in a building
•in a garden / in a park

Use 'in' with bodies of water:
•in the water
•in the sea
•in a river

Use 'in' with lines:
•in a row / in a line
•in a queue

AT

Use 'at' with places:
•at the bus-stop
•at the door
•at the cinema
•at the end of the street

ON

Use 'on' with surfaces:
•on the ceiling / on the wall / on the floor
•on the table

Use 'on' with small islands:
•I stayed on Maui.

Use 'on' with directions:
•on the left
•on the right
•straight on

TO

Use 'to' with movement from one place to another:
•I went to school.
•Did you go to work?
•Let's go to the shopping mall.

DO NOT Use 'to' with 'home'

The / A / An

•a = indefinite article (not a specific object, one of a number of the same objects) with consonants
She has a dog.
I work in a factory.
•an = indefinite article (not a specific object, one of a number of the same objects) with vowels (a,e,i,o,u)
Can I have an apple?
She is an English teacher.
•the = definite article (a specific object that both the person speaking and the listener know)
The car over there is fast.
The teacher is very good, isn't he?
•The first time you speak of something use "a or an", the next time you repeat that object use "the".
I live in a house. The house is quite old and has four bedrooms.
I ate in a Chinese restaurant. The restaurant was very good.
•DO NOT use an article with countries, states, counties or provinces, lakes and mountains except when the country is a collection of states such as "The United States".
He lives in Washington near Mount Rainier.
They live in northern British Columbia.
•Use an article with bodies of water, oceans and seas -
My country borders on the Pacific Ocean
•DO NOT use an article when you are speaking about things in general
I like Russian tea.
She likes reading books.
•DO NOT use an article when you are speaking about meals, places, and transport
He has breakfast at home.
I go to university.
He comes to work by taxi.
 

Uses of 'Like'

'Like' can be used as a verb or as a preposition. There are a number of common questions with 'like' that are easy to confuse.


• What's he like? - 'What … like?' is used to ask about a person's or object's character and is general in nature.
•What does he like? - This use of the verb 'like' is for general preferences. 'Like' as a verb is generally followed by the 'ing' form of the verb (I like playing tennis).
•What does she look like? - 'Like' is used as a preposition to express physical appearance. In this case, 'like' can also mean 'similar to' if you are making a comparison to other people.
•What would you like to drink? - Another common use of 'like' is in 'would like' to express wishes. Note that 'would like' is followed by the infinite form of the verb NOT the '-ing' form.
 

Past Tense Irregular Verbs

The past form of regular verbs ends in 'ed'. Irregular verbs must be studied individually. Here is a list of past forms of some of the most common irregular verbs.
be - was/were
become - became
begin - began
break - broke
bring - brought
build - built
buy - bought
come - came
cost - cost
cut - cut
do - did
drink - drank
eat - ate
find - found
fly - flew
get - got
give - gave
go - went
have - had
keep - kept
know - knew
leave - left
make - made
meet - met
pay - paid
put - put
read - read
say - said
see - saw
sell - sold
send - sent
speak - spoke
spend - spent
take - took
teach - taught
tell - told
think - thought

Pronouns

There are four types of pronouns: Subject Pronouns, Object Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns and Demonstrative Pronouns. Here is a list and explanation showing the different types of pronouns:

•Subject Pronouns - I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they function as the subject of a sentence:
I live in New York.
Do you like playing tennis?
He doesn't want to come this evening.
She works in London.
It won't be easy.
We are studying pronouns at the moment.
You went to Paris last year, didn't you?
They bought a new car last month.

•Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them serve as the object of a verb.
Give me the book.
He told you to come tonight.
She asked him to help.
They visited her when they came to New York.
She bought it at the store.
He picked us up at the airport.
The teacher asked you to finish your homework.
I invited them to a party.



•Possessive Pronouns - mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs show that something belongs to someone. That house is mine.
This is yours.
I'm sorry, that's his.
Those books are hers.
Those students are ours.
Look over there, those seats are yours.
Theirs will be green.


•Demonstrative Pronouns - this, that, these, those refer to things. 'this' and 'these' refer to something that is near. 'that' and 'those' refer to things that are farther away.
This is my house.
That is our car over there.
These are my colleagues in this room.
Those are beautiful flowers in the next field.



•Possessive adjectives - my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their are often confused with possessive pronouns. The possessive adjective modifies the noun following it in order to show possession.
I'll get my books.
Is that your car over there?
That is his teacher, Mr Jones.
I want to go to her store.
Its color is red.
Can we bring our children?
You are welcome to invite your husbands.
 

Prepositions of Time - In / At / On

IN

Use 'in' months and years and periods of time:


•in January
•in 1978
•in the twenties

Use 'in' a period of time in the future:


•in a few weeks
•in a couple of days

AT

Use 'at' with precise time:


•at six o'clock
•at 10.30
•at two p.m.

ON

Use 'on' with days of the week:


•on Monday
•on Fridays

Use 'on' with specific calendar days:


•on Christmas day
•on October 22nd

IMPORTANT NOTES

in the morning / afternoon / evening - at night

We say in the morning, afternoon or evening BUT we say 'at night'


Verbs Followed by the Gerund or the Infinitive

Verb + 'ing' OR Verb + Infinitive

When two verbs are used together, the second verb is often in the gerund form (-ing) or the infinitive. There are no specific rules concerning which verbs take which form. Like irregular verbs, you will need to learn which form a verb takes.

Common Verbs + 'ing'

go
enjoy
quit
discuss
mind
can't stand
suggest




Examples:

They go jogging on Saturdays.
I don't mind helping you.
They can't stand driving in traffic jams.

Common Verbs + Infinitive

promise
plan
refuse
want
need
decide
hope


Examples:

I promised to help him.
Alice needs to start that task.
He decided to quit his job.
 

Present Simple

Use the present simple to talk about activities or routines which take place on a regular basis.
Positive Sentences Subject + present conjugation of verb + objects

I / You drive to work every day.


She / He / It drives to work every day.

You / We / They drive to work every day.

Negative Sentences

Subject + do not + base form of verb + objects

I / You don't (do not) use a computer every day.


She / He / It doesn't ( does not) use a computer at work. It

You / We / They don't (do not) use a typewriter at work.

Question Form

Wh? + do + subject + base form of verb ?

When do I / you arrive at work?

What does he / she / it use at work?

Where do we / you / they keep the paper?
 

Modal Form Basics

Modals are verbs that modify other verbs. The most common modals are:
Can
Should
Must

Note that all subjects take the same form of the modal.

Positive

Subject + Modal + Base Form of Verb + Objects

Examples

He can play the piano.
I must leave soon.

Negative

Subject + Modal + Not + Base Form of Verb + Objects

Examples

They can't visit next week.
You shouldn't go to that film.

Question

Modal + Subject + Base Form of Verb + Objects

Examples

Can you help me?
What should I do?

Giving Advice with Should

'Should' is used when asking for or giving advice. It is also used when asking for suggestions.

Examples

I think you should see a doctor.
What type of job should I get?

Expressing Ability with Can

'Can' is used to speak abilities.

Examples

He can speak Japanese.
Can you play golf?

Asking for Permission with May

'May' is used to ask for permission.

Examples

May I help you?
May I visit you this afternoon?

NOTE: In spoken English, 'Can I ...?' is often used instead of 'May I ...?'
 

Future Forms - Going to / Will

The future with 'Will' is used in a variety of situations discussing the future. Use the following forms with 'will'. Notice that 'will' or 'won't' is used for ALL subjects.
Positive

Subject + will + base form of verb + object(s)

Negative

Subject + will + not + base form of verb + object(s)

Question

(Question Word) + will + subject + base form of verb?

Used for spontaneous decisions. Spontaneous decisions are decisions made AT the moment of speaking.

Examples

Jack's hungry. I'll make her a sandwich.
That's difficult! I'll help you with the problem.

Used for predictions:

Examples

It will snow tomorrow.
She won't win the game.

Used for scheduled public events

Examples

The concert will begin at 8 o'clock.
When will the train leave?
The class won't start next week.

Used for promises

Examples

Will you marry me?
I'll help you with your homework after class.

Future with 'Going to'

The future with 'going to' is used to speak about future intentions or plans made before the present moment. Use the following forms with 'going to'.

Positive

Subject + to be + going to + base form of verb + object(s)

Negative

Subject + to be + not + going to + base form of verb + object(s)

Question

(Question Word) + to be + subject + going to + base form of verb?

Examples We are going to study French next semester.
Where are you going to stay in France?
She isn't going to take a vacation this year.

Used for planned decisions. Planned decisions are decisions made BEFORE the moment of speaking.

Examples

I'm going to study Languages at university next year.
We're going to stay at the Hilton in New York next week.

Used for predicting an action that you see is about to happen:

Examples

Watch out! You're going to hit that car!
Look at those clouds. It's going to rain.

Used for future intentions:

Examples

I'm going to be a policeman when I grow up.
Katherine is going to study English when she goes to University.
 

 

Countries and Languages - Names and Adjectives

This chart shows first the country, then language and, finally the nationality of many major countries from around the world.

One syllable

France
French
French


Greece
Greek
Greek


ends in '-ish'


Britain
English
British


Denmark
Danish
Danish


Finland
Finnish
Finnish


Poland
Polish
Polish


Spain
Spanish
Spanish


Sweden
Swedish
Swedish


Turkey
Turkish
Turkish


ends in '-an'


Germany
German
German


Mexico
Spanish
Mexican


The United States
English
American


ends in '-ian' or '-ean'


Australia
English
Australian


Brazil
Portuguese
Brazilian


Egypt
Arabic
Egyptian


Italy
Italian
Italian


Hungary
Hungarian
Hungarian


Korea
Korean
Korean


Russia
Russian
Russian


ends in '-ese'


China
Chinese
Chinese


Japan
Japanese
Japanese


Portugal
Portuguese
Portuguese

 




 
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