Amir Kabir



  He was born in 1807, in HAZAVEH of FARAHAN, which is a part of ARAK city in center of Iran. KARBALAEE GHORBAN, the father of AMIR KABIR was a cook in the court of MIRZA ISA.

  Because of his unique talent, from the time he was a teenager, was noticed by MIRZA BOZORG, and became his clerk. Then quickly noticed by prince of Iran, ABAS MIRZA.

  His first political experience was accompanying KHOSROW MIRZA, in his trip to Russia. This trip came after the killing of GRIBAYDOVE, the ambassador of Russia in Iran. And it was in 1809, it was taken to apologize for the said action. MIRZA, in the following years, showed his merit much more in carrying out the court`s affairs. In 13 January 1838, along with NASERUDIN MIRZA the crown prince went to Russia and in Armenia (IRAVAN) met Nicholai who was Russia`s TEZAR.

  One of the most important political mission of AMIR NEZAM, during the reign of MMOHAMMAD SHAH, was being the chairman of the representatives at Iran`s government in the ARZANATOLRUM peace commission and he was in full power of duty. This began in March 1843 and despite the problems that surfaced following his stay in OSMANI, after 4 years a fine peace contract was signed. After signing peace contract in 1847, he was encouraged by king of Iran. AMIR NEZAM, who since years had established a close relationship with NASERUDIN MIRZA the prince, after the death of MOHAMMAD SHAH, in a powerful manner provided the means for the reign of prince and on 12 September 1848, announced the reigning of new king.

  AMIR NEZAM, who with the beginning of the reign of NASSERUDIN SHAH had become the chancellor, received the title of AMIR KABIR.

  A short while after working in new position, began his cultural, economic, financial, security and political reforms. Here he gave priority in his programs to establis security and pending the riots and mutinies and also financial reforms and stopping the covert and overt overcharges of those having power. A short while after acting as the chancellor, he showed that he intends to reduce the influence of foreigners (Russia and Britain) in the country`s various affairs.

  Among the important steps taken by AMIR KABIR was putting an end to MOHAMMAD HASSAN KHAN SALAR `s mutiny in 1850.
In the meantime while bringing order to the reign and controlling the activities and the behavior of those present in the court, implemented vast reforms relating to the government affairs and destroying much of the financial and government corruptions. He brought a new order in country`s affairs. Great work by a great man.

  Let us pass up that the reform undertakings made some of the most important individuals of the court and those holding power, his deadly enemies. Another reform implemented by AMIR KABIR was the renewal of the army and founding of a new order in the country`s military force. The witnesses at affairs in that time, praised his funding of a new military organization. Another work of this great man was creation of passport office, the bazar building, an arcade, AMIR` house, courier house, founding an information –espionage organization and secret writing. All these offices were working very efficiently till he was in power. And also he made much efforts concerning judicial reforms, destroyed the custom of taking sanctuary which often had a deviating trend. One more valuable work was establishing DAROLFONOUN as an educational center on Sunday 28 of December 1851. In the said academic center many great men were educated and could help their nation in various ways.

  In that period, great hero took firm steps relating to economy and industrial development and the country`s trade growth. He was insisting in foreign trade to be balanced positively.

The publishing of VAGHAYE ETEFAGHIYEH newspaper, translating and publishing books were all done by him.
As AMIR KABIR was a religious man, tried to increase the status of the clergy men. He had a great role in suppressing BAB`s rioting and the destruction of BABIYEH`s sedition which ended with the trial and execution of SEYED ALI MOHAMMAD BAB. This action made his relation much firmer with religious leaders.

  He tried to stop torturing and harming guilty fellows and those who were accused. Tried to ban criminal and political refugee in foreign embassies. Tried to cut the relation of internal subjects with outside representatives. He has done all these valuable words in of 4 years, only.

On Friday 16 of February 1849, he married the king`s sister, EZATOL DOLEH.

  The reformist efforts made by AMIR KABIR did not last long. While the independent AMIR KABIR`s foreign policy and his serious efforts to stop Britain and Russia`s intrusion and interferences were going to signal the beginning of a new era in the country, the conspiracies of the political representatives of the countries and the accompanying of the covert and overt enemies of him inside the country with the foreigner policy gradually led to king`s anger. NASERUDIN SHAH, removed him from the position of acting as the chancellor and other positions. Then he was exiled to KASHAN city. After some days, with the plot of foreigners and betray of
internal groups, king gave a mission to HAJI ALI MARAGHEI (HAJEBODOULEH) to kill AMIR KABIR.

On Saturday 10 January 1852, he was killed by envoy of king in bathhouse in KASHAN city.



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